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Adverbs of Frequency


Introdution. 2
1. What is an adverb of frequency?. 3
2. Adverbs of Frequency Rules. 3
3. The Position of the Adverb in a Sentence. 4
4. Examples of Adverbs of Frequency. 5
5. Irregular Verbs
. 5
5.1 What Are Irregular Verbs?. 5
5.2 Irregular Verb Examples. 5
6. The simple present tense is used: 6
7. Forming the simple present tense: to think. 7
7.1. Form.. 7
7.2. USE 1 Now.. 7
7.3. USE 2 Longer Actions in Progress Now.. 8
7.4. USE 3 Near Future. 8
7.5. USE 4 Repetition and Irritation with "Always". 8
7.7. Note: REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed Verbs. 8
8. Present perfect simple and present perfect continuos. 9
8.1. Present Perfect Simple. 9
8.2. Form of Present Perfect. 9
8.3. Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ‘ed’ 9
8.4.  Use of Present Perfect. 9
8.5.  Signal Words of Present Perfect. 10
8.1.1. Present Perfect Continuous. 10
8.1.2. FORM... 10
8.1.3. USE 1 Duration from the Past Until Now.. 10
8.1.4. USE 2 Recently, Lately. 10
8.1.5. Note: REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed Verbs. 10
9. Punctuation marks. 11
10. Conclusion. 13
11. References Bibliography. 14


English is a language West Germanic that appeared in the Anglo-reflect kingdoms of England and spread to what would become the south of Scotland, under the influence of the Kingdom Anglo's medieval Nortúmbria.
After centuries of extensive influence of Great Britain and the United Kingdom since the 18th century, through the British Empire and the United States since the middle of the twentieth century, English has been widely dispersed in the whole planet, becoming the main language of international discourse and a lingua franca in many regions.
Today, we see the great importance to learn the English language, in addition to it and international commercial, which guarantees the individual speaker more interactivity. In the present work we shall speak of Gramatica or a part of it, such as frequency Adverbs, time, of verbs (regular and irregular) and punctuation. Then, let us see how all these work...

1. What is an adverb of frequency?

Adverbs that change or qualify the meaning of a sentence by telling us how often or how frequently something happens are defined as adverbs of frequency.
An adverb of frequency is exactly what it sounds like – an adverb of time. Adverbs of frequency always describe how often something occurs, either in definite or indefinite terms. An adverb that describes definite frequency is one such as weekly, daily, or yearly. An adverb describing indefinite frequency doesn’t specify an exact time frame; examples are sometimes, often, and rarely.

2. Adverbs of Frequency Rules

These simple rules for adverbs of frequency will help you to use them correctly:
  • Always use adverbs of frequency to discuss how often something happens.
  • Adverbs of frequency are often used to indicate routine or repeated activities, so they are often used with the present simple tense.
  • If a sentence has only one verb, place the adverb of frequency in the middle of the sentence so that it is positioned after the subject but before the verb. For example: Tom never flies. He always takes the bus.
  • When a sentence contains more than one verb, place the adverb of frequency before the main verb. For example: They have often visited Europe.
  • When using an adverb of frequency in the negative or in forming a question, place it before the main verb. For example: Do you usually get up so late?
We use some adverbs to describe how frequently we do an activity.
These are called adverbs of frequency and include:

Adverb of Frequency
Example Sentence
I always go to bed before 11pm.
I usually have cereal for breakfast.
normally / generally
I normally go to the gym.
often* / frequently
I often surf the internet.
I sometimes forget my wife's birthday.
I occasionally eat junk food.
I seldom read the newspaper.
hardly ever / rarely
I hardly ever drink alcohol.
I never swim in the sea.
* Some people pronounce the 'T' in often but many others do not.


3. The Position of the Adverb in a Sentence

An adverb of frequency goes before a main verb (except with To Be).

Subject + adverb + main verb
I always remember to do my homework.
He normally gets good marks in exams.

An adverb of frequency goes after the verb To Be.

Subject + to be + adverb
They are never pleased to see me.
She isn't usually bad tempered.

When we use an auxiliary verb (have, will, must, might, could, would, can, etc.), the adverb is placed between the auxiliary and the main verb. This is also true for to be.

Subject + auxiliary + adverb + main verb
She can sometimes beat me in a race.
I would hardly ever be unkind to someone.
They might never see each other again.
They could occasionally be heard laughing.

We can also use the following adverbs at the start of a sentence:
Usually, normally, often, frequently, sometimes, occasionally
  • Occasionally, I like to eat Thai food.
BUT we cannot use the following at the beginning of a sentence:
Always, seldom, rarely, hardly, ever, never.
We use hardly ever and never with positive, not negative verbs:
  • She hardly ever comes to my parties.
  • They never say 'thank you'.
We use ever in questions and negative statements:
  • Have you ever been to New Zealand?
  • I haven't ever been to Switzerland. (The same as 'I have never been Switzerland').
We can also use the following expressions when we want to be more specific about the frequency:
- every day - once a month - twice a year - four times a day - every other week

4. Examples of Adverbs of Frequency

Each sentence contains an example of an adverb of frequency; the examples are italicized for easy identification.
  1. The incubator turns each egg hourly.
  2. We take a vacation at least once annually.
  3. I usually shop for groceries on Saturday mornings.
  4. He is often late for work.
  5. We seldom see John.
  6. My dentist told me I should floss twice daily.
Regular and Irregular Verbs
4.1. Regular verb

A regular verb is any verb whose conjugation follows the typical pattern, or one of the typical patterns, of the language to which it belongs. A verb whose conjugation follows a different pattern is called an irregular verb. (This is one instance of the distinction between regular and irregular inflection, which can also apply to other word classes, such as nouns and adjectives.).

In English, for example, verbs such as play, enter, and like are regular, since they form their inflected parts by adding the typical endings -s, -ing and -ed, to give forms such as plays, entering, and liked. On the other hand, verbs such as drink, hit and have are irregular, since some of their parts are not made according to the typical pattern – drank and drunk (not "drinked"); hit (as past tense and past participle, not "hitted") and has and had (not "haves" and "haved").

The classification of verbs as regular or irregular is to some extent a subjective matter. If some conjugational paradigm in a language is followed by a limited number of verbs, or requires the specification of more than one principal part (as with the German strong verbs), views may differ as to whether the verbs in question should be considered irregular. Most inflectional irregularities arise as a result of series of fairly uniform historical changes, so forms that appear to be irregular from a synchronic (contemporary) point of view may be seen as following more regular patterns when analyzed from a diachronic (historical linguistic) viewpoint.

5. Irregular Verbs

5.1. What Are Irregular Verbs?

Irregular verbs are verbs that don’t take on the regular –d, -ed, or -ied spelling patterns of the past simple (V2) or past participle (V3). Many of the irregular V2 and V3 forms are the same, such as: cut – cut, had – had, let – let, hurt – hurt, fed- fed, sold-sold.

5.2. Irregular Verb Examples

Irregular verbs are also known as strong verbs. Here are nine that are used more often than the rest. These nine irregular verb examples also happen to be among the most commonly used words in the English language. They are:

  • Go
  • Get
  • Say
  • See
  • Think
  • Make
  • Take
  • Come
  • Know

Present simple and continuos

Present simple
The simple present or present simple is one of the verb forms associated with the present tense in modern English. It is commonly referred to as a tense, although it also encodes certain information about aspect in addition to present time.

It is called "simple" because its basic form consists of a single word (like write or writes), in contrast with other present tense forms such as the present progressive (is writing) and present perfect (has written). For nearly all English verbs the simple present is identical to the base form (dictionary form) of the verb, except when the subject is third-person singular, in which case the ending -(e)s is added. There are a few verbs with irregular forms, the most notable being the copula be, which has the simple present forms am, is and are.

The principal use of the simple present is to refer to an action or event that takes place habitually, as in He writes for a living (in contrast to the present progressive, which refers to something taking place at the present moment: He is writing a letter now). However certain verbs expressing a state, such as be and know, are used in the simple present even when referring to a temporary present state. There are also certain other uses (including those mentioned in the following paragraph) in which the simple present does not reflect a habitual aspect.

Like other English present tense forms, the simple present has certain uses in which it does not refer to present time. It frequently refers to the future, as in "My train leaves tomorrow" and "If we win on Saturday,...". It can also sometimes refer to past events – as in newspaper headlines, for example.
For more information about the uses of constructions related to or contrasting with the simple present, see Uses of English verb forms.

6. The simple present tense is used:

  • To express habits, general truths, repeated actions or unchanging situations, emotions and wishes:
    I smoke (habit); I work in London (unchanging situation); London is a large city (general truth)
  • To give instructions or directions:
    You walk for two hundred meters, then you turn left.
  • To express fixed arrangements, present or future:
    Your exam starts at 09.00
  • To express future time, after some conjunctions: after, when, before, as soon as, until:
    He'll give it to you when you come next Saturday.

7. Forming the simple present tense: to think

I think
Do I think?
I do not think
You think
Do you think?
You do not think
He thinks
Does he think?
He does not think
She thinks
Does she think?
She does not think
It thinks
Does it think?
It does not think
We think
Do we think?
We do not think.
They think
Do they think?
They do not think.

Present continuos

7.1. Form

[am/is/are + present participle]
  • You are watching TV.
  • Are you watching TV?
  • You are not watching TV.

7.2. USE 1 Now

Use the Present Continuous with Normal verbs to express the idea that something is happening now, at this very moment. It can also be used to show that something is not happening now.
  • You are learning English now.
  • You are not swimming now.
  • Are you sleeping?
  • I am sitting.
  • I am not standing.
  • Is he sitting or standing?
  • They are reading their books.
  • They are not watching television.
  • What are you doing?
  • Why aren't you doing your homework?

7.3. USE 2 Longer Actions in Progress Now

In English, "now" can mean: this second, today, this month, this year, this century, and so on. Sometimes, we use the Present Continuous to say that we are in the process of doing a longer action which is in progress; however, we might not be doing it at this exact second.
Examples: (All of these sentences can be said while eating dinner in a restaurant.)
  • I am studying to become a doctor.
  • I am not studying to become a dentist.
  • I am reading the book Tom Sawyer.
  • I am not reading any books right now.
  • Are you working on any special projects at work?
  • Aren't you teaching at the university now?

7.4. USE 3 Near Future

Sometimes, speakers use the Present Continuous to indicate that something will or will not happen in the near future.
  • I am meeting some friends after work.
  • I am not going to the party tonight.
  • Is he visiting his parents next weekend?
  • Isn't he coming with us tonight?

7.5. USE 4 Repetition and Irritation with "Always"

The Present Continuous with words such as "always" or "constantly" expresses the idea that something irritating or shocking often happens. Notice that the meaning is like simple present, but with negative emotion. Remember to put the words "always" or "constantly" between "be" and "verb+ing."
  • She is always coming to class late.
  • He is constantly talking. I wish he would shut up.
  • I don't like them because they are always complaining.

7.6. Note: REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed Verbs

It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Present Continuous with these verbs, you must use Simple Present.
  • She is loving this chocolate ice cream. Not Correct
  • She loves this chocolate ice cream. Correct

8. Present perfect simple and present perfect continuos

8.1. Present Perfect Simple

The present perfect simple expresses an action that is still going on or that stopped recently, but has an influence on the present. It puts emphasis on the result.

8.2. Form of Present Perfect

I / you / we / they
I have spoken.
I have not spoken.
Have I spoken?
he / she / it
He has spoken.
He has not spoken.
Has he spoken?
For irregular verbs, use the participle form (see list of irregular verbs, 3rd column). For regular verbs, just add ed.

8.3. Exceptions in Spelling when Adding ed

Exceptions in spelling when adding ed
after a final e only add d
love – loved
final consonant after a short, stressed vowel
or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled
admit – admitted
travel – travelled
final y after a consonant becomes i
hurry – hurried

8.4. Use of Present Perfect

  • puts emphasis on the result
Example: She has written five letters.
  • action that is still going on
Example: School has not started yet.
  • action that stopped recently
Example: She has cooked dinner.
  • finished action that has an influence on the present
Example: I have lost my key.
  • action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking
Example: I have never been to Australia.

8.5. Signal Words of Present Perfect

  • already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now.

8.1.1. Present Perfect Continuous

8.1.2. FORM

[has/have + been + present participle]
  • You have been waiting here for two hours.
  • Have you been waiting here for two hours?
  • You have not been waiting here for two hours.

8.1.3. USE 1 Duration from the Past Until Now

We use the Present Perfect Continuous to show that something started in the past and has continued up until now. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Tuesday" are all durations which can be used with the Present Perfect Continuous.
  • They have been talking for the last hour.
  • She has been working at that company for three years.
  • What have you been doing for the last 30 minutes?
  • James has been teaching at the university since June.
  • We have been waiting here for over two hours!
  • Why has Nancy not been taking her medicine for the last three days?

8.1.4. USE 2 Recently, Lately

You can also use the Present Perfect Continuous WITHOUT a duration such as "for two weeks." Without the duration, the tense has a more general meaning of "lately." We often use the words "lately" or "recently" to emphasize this meaning.
  • Recently, I have been feeling really tired.
  • She has been watching too much television lately.
  • Have you been exercising lately?
  • Mary has been feeling a little depressed.
  • Lisa has not been practicing her English.
  • What have you been doing?

8.1.4. Note: REMEMBER Non-Continuous Verbs/ Mixed Verbs

It is important to remember that Non-Continuous Verbs cannot be used in any continuous tenses. Also, certain non-continuous meanings for Mixed Verbs cannot be used in continuous tenses. Instead of using Present Perfect Continuous with these verbs, you must use Present Perfect.
  • Sam has been having his car for two years. Not Correct
  • Sam has had his car for two years. Correct

9. Punctuation marks

Punctuation is "the use of spacing, conventional signs, and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and the correct reading, both silently and aloud, of handwritten and printed texts." Another description is: "The practice, action, or system of inserting points or other small marks into texts, in order to aid interpretation; division of text into sentences, clauses, etc., by means of such marks."

In written English, punctuation is vital to disambiguate the meaning of sentences. For example: "woman, without her man, is nothing" (emphasizing the importance of men), and "woman: without her, man is nothing" (emphasizing the importance of women) have very different meanings; as do "eats shoots and leaves" (which means the subject consumes plant growths) and "eats, shoots, and leaves" (which means the subject eats first, then fires a weapon, and then leaves the scene). The sharp differences in meaning are produced by the simple differences in punctuation within the example pairs, especially the latter.

The rules of punctuation vary with language, location, register and time and are constantly evolving. Certain aspects of punctuation are stylistic and are thus the author's (or editor's) choice. Tachygraphic language forms, such as those used in online chat and text messages, may have wildly different rules. For English usage, see the articles on specific punctuation marks.

Punctuation Mark
An apostrophe is used as a substitute for a missing letter or letters in a word (as in the contraction cannot = can't), to show the possessive case (Jane's room), and in the plural of letters, some numbers and abbreviations. Note: groups of years no longer require an apostrophe (for example, the 1950s or the 90s).
I can't see the cat's tail.
Dot your i's and cross your t's.
100's of years.
A colon is used before a list or quote.
A colon is used to separate hours and minutes.
A colon is used to separate elements of a mathematical ratio.
There are many punctuation marks: period, comma, colon, and others.
The time is 2:15.
The ratio of girls to boys is 3:2.
A comma is used to separate phrases or items in a list.
She bought milk, eggs, and bread.
A dash is used to separate parts of a sentence.
The dash is also known as an "em dash" because it is the length of a printed letter m — it is longer than a hyphen.
An ellipsis (three dots) indicates that part of the text has been intentionally been left out.
0, 2, 4, ... , 100
exclamation point
An exclamation point is used to show excitement or emphasis.
It is cold!
A hyphen is used between parts of a compound word or name. It is also used to split a word by syllables to fit on a line of text.
The sixteen-year-old girl is a full-time student.
( )
Parentheses are curved lines used to separate explanations or qualifying statements within a sentence (each one of the curved lines is called a parenthesis). The part in the parentheses is called a parenthetical remark.
This sentence (like others on this page) contains a parenthetical remark.
A period is used to note the end of a declarative sentence.
I see the house.
question mark
A question mark is used at the end of a question.
When are we going?
quotation mark
Quotation marks are used at the beginning and end of a phrase to show that it is being written exactly as it was originally said or written.
She said, "Let's eat."
A semicolon separates two independent clauses in a compound sentence.
A semicolon is also used to separate items in a series (where commas are already in use).
Class was canceled today; Mr. Smith was home sick.
Relatives at the reunion included my older brother, Bob; my cousin, Art; and my great-aunt, Mattie.


10. Conclusion

Having reached the end of this work, we have seen clearly the importance of knowing the frequency adverbs, because they help us to understand the regularity or routine that person usually has done something, moreover, also saw signs of score, which practically in all languages exercise an extreme function and the English language is not an exception. Because, without knowing these signs and know how to apply them can result in incorrect interpretation of sense, which would create confusion.

11. References Bibliography


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